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The lithium/air couple has a theoretical energy density that is close to the limit of what is possible for a battery (~10,000 Wh/kg). Although lithium/air chemistry has intrigued battery scientists for decades, it was only with the recent invention of the protected lithium electrode (PLE) by PolyPlus that lithium/air batteries are now approaching commercial reality. Primary Li/Air technology is nearing commercialization and has already achieved specific energies in excess of 700 Wh/kg (~ 2 Ah cells). Rechargeable Li/Air technology, also based on the protected lithium electrode, is still in development, but is expected to achieve much higher energy density than commercial Li-ion chemistry. It is unlikely that conventional battery technology can safely exceed a specific energy of 250 Wh/kg since stoichiometric oxidant and reductant are present in concentrated form. However, in a lithium/air battery oxygen is utilized from the ambient atmosphere, as needed for the cell reaction, resulting in a safe, high specific energy power source. The use of a solid electrolyte membrane in advanced Li/Air technology also eliminates self-discharge, leading to exceptionally good shelf life and maintenance of high quality inventory over time.

plePolyPlus possesses
extensive intellectual
property in the invention
of protected electrodes
and battery chemistries enabled by them, including issued and filed U.S. patents, international patents and PCT applications, as well as thorough know-how on the fabrication and use of protected electrodes in battery cells.

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